vendredi 29 mai 2009

# Rapid prototyping PHD by Norbert Palz

Norbert Palz is currently working on his PHD in CITA (see former post) about Rapid prototyping and manufacturing technologies for digital material specifications.
Most people in design are using CNC just like they're using digital tools, as an alternative of representation regular (former) tools like the pen or the cutter. Some others like Norbert are directly considering the specificity of those tools to invent something which was not possible before they got created. This research is thus very important for the architecture world as long as very few people already worked on it because of the novelty of those tools...

Contemporary techniques of layered fabrication can alter the abilities of designers to engage with the material properties and performance. Increased geometric control, digital production methods and a stronger implementation of material science offer the potential to constitute a new material behaviors of future building components. These processes can be used to address local changes in the building component´s definition that alter material organization, structural behavior and performance over time. The material consequences have the potential to change the way we will construct and design buildings. Rapid Prototyping technology evolved in less than 30 years from a proof of concept state towards an elaborated manufacturing technology. Recent Innovations allow the simultaneous print from two source model materials and can create a total of 21 interpolated types of digital materials that contain specifically addressable physical properties as e.g. tensile and flexural strength or modulus of elasticity. The technology operates with a steering technology that allows the synchronisation of eight print heads (6 for material and 2 for the support structure) heads with 96 individual nozzles. The implementation of physical properties shifts the role of the model further away from mere representation towards a manufacturing process. This investigation of a future implementation of RP technology for 1:1 applications seems therefore justified. These innovations can be synchronized with present-day 3D CAD modeling tools that allow the successful implementation of performance data derived from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or energetic simulation. The research is centered on how these recent developments in the field of Rapid Prototyping Technology can be employed for a study on performance based material composition with different structural systems. The research has accomplished the first phase that was centered on gaining parametric control over a series of material compositions (including weaving; knitting etc.). The next step will assign the performance based digital materials to probes that are tested by Institute of Plastics Processing at RWTH Aachen University and the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung in Berlin
The research develops a parametrically driven foam structure that has auxetic properties. Auxetic material expands under pulling forces contrary to common materials. The research parametrically drives a spacefilling component derived from metallic foams ( see also: Negative Poisson's Ratio Polymeric and Metallic Foams adapted from Friis, E. A., Lakes, R. S., and Park, J. B., "Negative Poisson's ratio polymeric and metallic materials", Journal of Materials Science, 23, 4406-4414 (1988).)

RP Prototyping of Auxtetic foam structure

RP Prototyping of Auxtetic foam structure

Multi material printing allows for an implementation of internal geometries that control movement constraints without additional building components as hinges etc. The material itself contains structural qualities that block or allow certain dynamic properties.

Modells generously sponsored by Objet Geometries

Internal Pneumatic system (with Bernhard Sommer, Energy Design, Die Angewandte Wien) To combine inflatable structures with the RP technology introduces dynamic qualities to highly customized building parts. The quality of the structural performance, the appearance, the transparency and the permeability of such parts can be changed continuously. These changes reveal and exploit the digital structure in a unique way. Rapid Prototyping thus is used not anymore as “proto” typing, but becomes a production method in its own, which leads to complete new applications in building construction. Looking at the development of Rapid Prototyping technology from its earliest phase in the late 1970ies to its first commercial application in the late 1980ies and to the diversity in print materials we encounter today, we can expect to leave behind the usual scope of a model´s scale. The impact of this material integration will leave its traces in the applications, concepts and processes of design creation.

Study on material organization that is derived from particle animation.